Special Physical Training of High Educational Institutions Athletes in a Short Running Race
Topicality. Running is one of the most popular activities in the world. Practicing this kind of sport is an important means of physical education, so it occupies one of the first places in the nature of motor actions. Short running race is the oldest type of athletic exercises included in modern athletics. It is characterized by the maximum intensity of the entire distance running at the anaerobic mode. Physical training of a runner for the short running race is divided into general and special. Special physical training of sprint athletes studying at higher education institutions is a multi-year and multifaceted process. It includes physical, tactical, technical and psychological training. The growth of sports results is possible due to the harmonious balance of all training aspects. The methods of intensification of special sprinters training will be effective and pedagogically expedient if it is based on reliable knowledge of the structural components of the athletes training, taking into account individual motor skills indicators. The research purpose is to substantiate the impact of training loads on the special physical training of students who specialize in 100 and 200 meters running races. The research tasks are studying and highlighting the researched problem analysis in domestic and foreign sources; determining the impact of training loads on the female students’ special physical training at sportsmanship improving classes. Methods of the research. Analysis and synthesis of scientific literature sources, dialogues, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results of the research. The success of sprinters training depends on the effectiveness of methods, organization and managemnt of the training process. The use of a significant number of special means of physical and functional training in the training process effectively affected the students physical fitness of the main group. In particular, a probable increase of 100 and 200 meters running results was established, which indicates the girls` anaerobic capacity development who are specialized in the short running race. The indicators of 30 meter flying start run, as well as 100 and 200 meters and shuttle running showed an increased results of female students of the main group. There is a slight increase in speed, coordination and anaerobic-aerobic capacity of female students of the control group. Such results are due to the use of larger number of anaerobic training modes. Conclusions. It is necessary to use a significant number of general and special tools for the formation of physical and functional fitness during the students’ educational and training process. In particular, for the female students` training in short running race, it is advisable to increase the training at anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic modes, which will promote the development of speed, speed endurance and functionality improving.
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