Peculiarities of Interaction Between Trampoline and Trampolinist – as a Complex Biomechanical System in the Aspect of Physical Forces and Biomechanics of the Athlete
Keywords:training of trampoline athletes, trampoline jumps, biomechanics of trampolinist’s movements
Aims. The purpose of this work is a detailed and detailed consideration of forces acting in the system «trampoline- trampolinist» from the point of view of the laws of classical physics. Concretely – the movement of the body of the athlete in space, mechanics of «work» of trampoline and system «trampoline trampolinist», as well as some aspects of the biomechanics of movements of the trampolinist when leaving the bed of the trampoline, coming to it and being out of contact with it. Study design. This work is an independent scientific research review with an analysis of question- naire data on the problematic issue. Methodology: the study was based on the application of a number of theoretical and empirical methods. The study uses theoretical analysis, systematization, and generalization of scientific literature, documentary sources, and guidelines in the field of physical education, biomechanics of movements of the trampolinist, a compilation of literature sources to identify the essence of the problem forces and interaction of the athlete with the trampoline and identify ways to solve. Results. In the article theoretical aspects of processes occurring in the interaction of trampoline as a mechanical system and trampolinist as a biomechanical system are considered. In connection with the increased requirements for the performance of athletes on trampolines since 2017 and the new rules of evaluation of performance in trampolining, the basic forces acting in the system «trampoline – trampolinist» are considered in detail. By calculation according to anthropometric and physical data of trampolinists and data of the analysis of their movements in the process of jumping by means of the special computer program «Kinovea» quantitative characteristics of forces acting in the «trampoline-trampolinist» system at different stages of their interaction in the process of their training or competitive programs were determined. A clear correlation of essential increase of these forces in proportion to the age of the sportsman, growth of his sports skill, and mass of his body is shown. The program allowed tracking the dynamics of athletes’ in-flight movements in slow motion and determining the angles of their body parts’ positions. A theoretical analysis of the main reasons that lead to violations in the combined operation of the trampoline as a mechanical system and the trampolinist as a biomechanical object was carried out. The consequences of these violations are shown and the ways of correcting these phenomena to increase the level of sportsmanship of trampolinists and increase their performance grades are proposed. Conclusion. When teaching trampoline athletes in the early stages and especially at the stage of specialized basic training, the authors point out that it is important to explain them and achieve a proper understanding of the physical forces and their real values acting on athletes in different phases of flight.
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