Stress Factors Characteristics Affecting the Pre-Start State of Sprint Athletes
Research Relevance. The article generalizes contemporary scientific data concerning the significance of psychological preparedness of sprint athletes to the competitive activities; the results of psychological and pedagogical experiment are presented, the main factors that influence the psychological state in different preparation periods of athletes are defined. The Research Aimed to identify the most significant stress factors that affect the psychological state of sprint athletes during training and participation in competitions. Research Objectives were to determine the level of development of the studied issue in the theory and practice of sports training; to identify the most significant stress factors that affect the psyche of athletes in the process of competitive activity. Research Methods include theoretical analysis and generalization of literary sources, pedagogical observations, surveys (interviews, questionnaires), and mathematical statistics methods. Research Subjects. Students of Lutsk Children and Youth Sports School (CYSS), students of physical education, sports and health of Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, and students of Lutsk Technical University (20 people) engaged in sprinting and had different sports categories participated in the study. Research Results. Frester's questionnaire «Stress-symptom-test» was used to identify the most significant stress factors that affect the psychological state of athletes in the process of a competitive activity. The survey results determined that the most significant stress factors for the high qualified sprint athletes were conduction of low-quality training before; bad sleep before the competition; increased excitement and excessive tension at the start; meeting with a stronger opponent; unsuccessful performance at previous competitions; negative reactions of spectators. Analyzing the state and behaviour of low-qualified athletes in response to different stress factors, it was determined that some of them are equally significant for sportsmen. Conclusions. Identifying the main factors that interfere successful performance of athletes allow coaches to anticipate possible negative consequences that affect the readiness of sportsmen for a competitive activity and conduct the appropriate corrective work.
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